this-old-stomping-ground:

"Under the same circumstances, and the key words are ‘the same circumstances’ yes, I would do it again. We were in a war for five years. We were fighting an enemy that had a reputation for never surrendering, never accepting defeat. It’s really hard to talk about morality and war in the same sentence. In a war, there are so many questionable things done. Where was the morality in the bombing of Coventry, or the bombing of Dresden, or the Bataan death march, or the Rape of Nanking, or the bombing of Pearl Harbor? I believe that when you’re in a war, a nation must have the courage to do what it must to win the war with a minimum loss of lives." - Theodore "Dutch" Van Kirk, who passed away yesterday at the age of 93. He was the navigator on the "Enola Gay" for the Hiroshima atomic bomb mission, as well as the last remaining crew member. Thank you @wwii_pictures for bringing this airman’s passing to my attention.

this-old-stomping-ground:

"Under the same circumstances, and the key words are ‘the same circumstances’ yes, I would do it again. We were in a war for five years. We were fighting an enemy that had a reputation for never surrendering, never accepting defeat. It’s really hard to talk about morality and war in the same sentence. In a war, there are so many questionable things done. Where was the morality in the bombing of Coventry, or the bombing of Dresden, or the Bataan death march, or the Rape of Nanking, or the bombing of Pearl Harbor? I believe that when you’re in a war, a nation must have the courage to do what it must to win the war with a minimum loss of lives." - Theodore "Dutch" Van Kirk, who passed away yesterday at the age of 93. He was the navigator on the "Enola Gay" for the Hiroshima atomic bomb mission, as well as the last remaining crew member. Thank you @wwii_pictures for bringing this airman’s passing to my attention.

(via artofmanliness)

thinksquad:

For 17 years, James Doyle was a nuclear policy specialist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Then he wrote an article that made the case for getting rid of nuclear weapons. After that, his computer was seized, he was accused of releasing classified information, and then he was fired.
The article, “Why Eliminate Nuclear Weapons?,” appeared in the journal Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, which is published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in the UK. It’s not exactly a household name, but the journal has been a publishing venue for prominent academics and policy wonks since it was founded in the Cold War (hence, its rather alarmist-sounding name).
Doyle’s piece wasn’t an anti-government rant, but a lengthy argument that nuclear weapons had lost their strategic utility and value as a deterrent, that getting rid of them would enhance international security, and that this was an ideal point in time to get serious about global disarmament.
read more: http://io9.com/federal-employee-gets-fired-after-writing-an-article-cr-1614664221

thinksquad:

For 17 years, James Doyle was a nuclear policy specialist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Then he wrote an article that made the case for getting rid of nuclear weapons. After that, his computer was seized, he was accused of releasing classified information, and then he was fired.

The article, “Why Eliminate Nuclear Weapons?,” appeared in the journal Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, which is published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in the UK. It’s not exactly a household name, but the journal has been a publishing venue for prominent academics and policy wonks since it was founded in the Cold War (hence, its rather alarmist-sounding name).

Doyle’s piece wasn’t an anti-government rant, but a lengthy argument that nuclear weapons had lost their strategic utility and value as a deterrent, that getting rid of them would enhance international security, and that this was an ideal point in time to get serious about global disarmament.

read more: http://io9.com/federal-employee-gets-fired-after-writing-an-article-cr-1614664221

cenwatchglass:


Tungsten evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube (Alchemist-hp (www.pse-mendelejew.de)). 
Tungsten is an incredible material. It is dense and hard, and it has the lowest vapor pressure and highest melting temperature of all metals. This combination of properties makes tungsten extremely valuable for a myriad of applications, while at the same time creates great challenges in the processing of the metal. As a child, I was fascinated by how things work and spent a lot of time taking things apart. As with most budding engineers, I rarely reassembled them. Incandescent bulbs were one of my first quarries, carefully disassembled to reveal a hidden treasure: a tungsten filament. It was amazing that this tiny wire could be heated to white-hot temperatures to produce light. Also at an early age, I was introduced to vacuum tubes, and to this day they are magical in my eyes. When a tungsten filament is heated in a vacuum, the electrons near the surface become energetic enough to be emitted into the surrounding space. Additional tungsten conductors, in the form of grids and plates, can be added to the bulb, and the electrons can then be manipulated to switch, rectify and amplify These electronic switches were crucial in the development of modern electronics.  
Tungsten at a Glance: Name: From the Swedish tung sten, meaning heavy stone. The symbol is from mineral wolframite, from which the element was originally isolated. Atomic mass: 183.84. History: Isolated in 1783 by Spanish chemists Juan Jose and Fausto Elhuyar. Occurrence: China has 75% of the world’s tungsten ores. Appearance: Silvery white metal. Behavior: Tungsten has the highest melting point and highest boiling point of all metals. Uses: Tungsten is used in high-temperature applications such as heating.-Rick Lowden  It’s Elemental: Tungsten  Chemical & Engineering News, September 8, 2003 

cenwatchglass:

Tungsten evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube (Alchemist-hp (www.pse-mendelejew.de)).

Tungsten is an incredible material. It is dense and hard, and it has the lowest vapor pressure and highest melting temperature of all metals. This combination of properties makes tungsten extremely valuable for a myriad of applications, while at the same time creates great challenges in the processing of the metal.

As a child, I was fascinated by how things work and spent a lot of time taking things apart. As with most budding engineers, I rarely reassembled them. Incandescent bulbs were one of my first quarries, carefully disassembled to reveal a hidden treasure: a tungsten filament. It was amazing that this tiny wire could be heated to white-hot temperatures to produce light.

Also at an early age, I was introduced to vacuum tubes, and to this day they are magical in my eyes. When a tungsten filament is heated in a vacuum, the electrons near the surface become energetic enough to be emitted into the surrounding space. Additional tungsten conductors, in the form of grids and plates, can be added to the bulb, and the electrons can then be manipulated to switch, rectify and amplify These electronic switches were crucial in the development of modern electronics.  

Tungsten at a Glance: Name: From the Swedish tung sten, meaning heavy stone. The symbol is from mineral wolframite, from which the element was originally isolated. Atomic mass: 183.84. History: Isolated in 1783 by Spanish chemists Juan Jose and Fausto Elhuyar. Occurrence: China has 75% of the world’s tungsten ores. Appearance: Silvery white metal. Behavior: Tungsten has the highest melting point and highest boiling point of all metals. Uses: Tungsten is used in high-temperature applications such as heating.

-Rick Lowden  

It’s Elemental: Tungsten  

Chemical & Engineering News, September 8, 2003 

(via scinerds)

nuclearvault:

Starfish Prime was a high-altitude nuclear test conducted by the United States on 9 July 1962 as part of Operation Fishbowl over Johnston Atoll. It was successfully detonated at an altitude of 400 km (250 mi) at 09:00:09 Honolulu time.

Starfish Prime’s electromagnetic pulse was much larger than originally expected and drove much of the instrumentation off scale, as well as causing electrical damage in Hawaii, which was about 1,445 km (898 mi) away from the detonation point. It knocked out about 300 streetlights, set off numerous burglar alarms and damaged a telephone company microwave link. 

I like this, but before anyone gets on the ‘EMP=end of the world’ train please see: 
http://lewis.armscontrolwonk.com/archive/4293/talking-warheads-on-emp

http://lewis.armscontrolwonk.com/archive/6626/more-emp-nonsense

jtotheizzoe:

spaceplasma:

xysciences:

A gif representing nuclear fusion and how it creates energy. 
[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

For those who don’t understand the GIF. It illustrates the Deuterium-Tritium fusion; a deuterium and tritium combine to form a helium-4. Most of the energy released is in the form of the high-energy neutron.
Nuclear fusion has the potential to generate power without the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (energy from splitting heavy atoms  into smaller atoms), but that depends on which atoms you decide to fuse. Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted ¹H, ²H, and ³H. Deuterium (²H) - Tritium (³H) fusion (pictured above) appears to be the best and most effective way to produce energy. Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (adding a proton makes a new element, but adding a neutron makes an isotope of the same atom). 
The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (no neutrons, just one proton, hence the name), deuterium (deuterium comes from the Greek word deuteros, which means “second”, this is in reference two the two particles, a proton and a neutron), and tritium (the name of this comes from the Greek word “tritos” meaning “third”, because guess what, it contains one proton and two neutrons). Here’s a diagram
Deuterium is abundant, it can be extracted from seawater, but tritium is a  radioactive isotope and must be either derived(bred) from lithium or obtained in the operation of the deuterium cycle. Tritium is also produced naturally in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays strike nitrogen molecules in the air, but that’s extremely rare. It’s also a by product in reactors producing electricity (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant). Tritium is a low energy beta emitter (unable to penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin), it has a relatively long half life and short biological half life. It is not dangerous externally, however emissions from inhaled or ingested beta particle emitters pose a significant health risk.
During fusion (energy from combining light elements to form heavier ones), two atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium must be brought so close together that they fuse in spite of the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei. So, in order to accomplish nuclear fusion, the two nuclei must first overcome the electric repulsion (coulomb barrier ) to get close enough for the attractive nuclear strong force (force that binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) to take over to fuse the particles. The D-T reaction is the easiest to bring about, it has the lowest energy requirement compared to energy release. The reaction products are helium-4 (the helium isotope) – also called the alpha particle, which carries 1/5 (3.5 MeV) of the total fusion energy in the form of kinetic energy, and a neutron, which carries 4/5 (14.1 MeV). Don’t be alarmed by the alpha particle, the particles are not dangerous in themselves, it is only because of the high speeds at which they are ejected from the nuclei that make them dangerous, but unlike beta or gamma radiation, they are stopped by a piece of paper.

Some fundamentals of fusion.

jtotheizzoe:

spaceplasma:

xysciences:

A gif representing nuclear fusion and how it creates energy. 

[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

For those who don’t understand the GIF. It illustrates the Deuterium-Tritium fusion; a deuterium and tritium combine to form a helium-4. Most of the energy released is in the form of the high-energy neutron.

Nuclear fusion has the potential to generate power without the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (energy from splitting heavy atoms  into smaller atoms), but that depends on which atoms you decide to fuse. Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted ¹H, ²H, and ³H. Deuterium (²H) - Tritium (³H) fusion (pictured above) appears to be the best and most effective way to produce energy. Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (adding a proton makes a new element, but adding a neutron makes an isotope of the same atom). 

The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (no neutrons, just one proton, hence the name), deuterium (deuterium comes from the Greek word deuteros, which means “second”, this is in reference two the two particles, a proton and a neutron), and tritium (the name of this comes from the Greek word “tritos” meaning “third”, because guess what, it contains one proton and two neutrons). Here’s a diagram

Deuterium is abundant, it can be extracted from seawater, but tritium is a  radioactive isotope and must be either derived(bred) from lithium or obtained in the operation of the deuterium cycle. Tritium is also produced naturally in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays strike nitrogen molecules in the air, but that’s extremely rare. It’s also a by product in reactors producing electricity (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant). Tritium is a low energy beta emitter (unable to penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin), it has a relatively long half life and short biological half life. It is not dangerous externally, however emissions from inhaled or ingested beta particle emitters pose a significant health risk.

During fusion (energy from combining light elements to form heavier ones), two atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium must be brought so close together that they fuse in spite of the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei. So, in order to accomplish nuclear fusion, the two nuclei must first overcome the electric repulsion (coulomb barrier ) to get close enough for the attractive nuclear strong force (force that binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) to take over to fuse the particles. The D-T reaction is the easiest to bring about, it has the lowest energy requirement compared to energy release. The reaction products are helium-4 (the helium isotope) – also called the alpha particle, which carries 1/5 (3.5 MeV) of the total fusion energy in the form of kinetic energy, and a neutron, which carries 4/5 (14.1 MeV). Don’t be alarmed by the alpha particle, the particles are not dangerous in themselves, it is only because of the high speeds at which they are ejected from the nuclei that make them dangerous, but unlike beta or gamma radiation, they are stopped by a piece of paper.

Some fundamentals of fusion.

(Source: xyprogramming)